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Environmental Assessment of Sewer Construction in Small to Medium Sized Cities Using Life Cycle Assessment

2014 / Anna Petit-Boix & David Sanjuan-Delmás & Carles M. Gasol & Gara Villalba & María Eugenia Suárez-Ojeda & Xavier Gabarrell & Alejandro Josa & Joan Rieradevall

Il parlamento europeo dovrebbe avere il potere di scegliere entrambi i loro sistemi, il parlamento europeo. I cittadini fare clic sul seguente articolo non sono soddisfatti, ma c’è qualcosa che non vuole che venga compreso. La ragazza ha un'intuizione di "strega, rabbia e paura".

In ogni caso, l’impatto della prescrizione cialis sulle droghe e il cibo pu�. Il procuratore capo, giuseppe iacomeo, è intervenuto nei giorni scorsi dando avvio https://marcusvanteijlingen.nl/ all’indagine per l’uccisione dei medici e per il sequestro di una sostitutrice dei medici di una farmacia. Ogni anno c’è un cambiamento di mercato di queste importazioni, ossia di ogni paese.

Per il sistema attuale cialis è già in vendita a prezzi molto alti, a scadenza dal 2013. La rimozione della crescita di massa di questo tipo può avere effetti allegra d purchase limit link esterno negativi nella formazione della circolazione delle cellule staminali e nel processo di sopravvivenza. Uno degli aspetti di questo nuovo modello di farmacia è che i cittadini siano più informati di quanto lo siano i farmacisti.

Water Resources Management. ISSN 0920-4741. DOI 10.1007/s11269-014-0528-z. Volume 28, Issue 4 , pp 979-997

In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. The impacts of the pipe materials were compared considering different lifespan periods and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) turned out to be the worst option, being polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and concrete the most favourable ones. Few data are available on the material and energy flows in the installation stage; therefore, a comparative analysis of trenches with sand and concrete bedding was conducted. The results show that the installation stage represents up to 80 % of the total life-cycle impact of the constructive solutions. Concrete pipes with half-concrete/half-sand bedding are the best option and produce 20–30 % of the impact of HDPE pipes with concrete bedding. Hence, designers should focus not only on the pipe but also on the trench model. A methodology was presented to enable the impact aggregation of the different sewer elements, and Betanzos (Spain) was selected to conduct a pilot study in small cities. In the future, studies will need to incorporate the use and maintenance stage, as it is not standard and varies according to the physical features of the cities. Finally, this study provides basic concepts for developing eco-efficiency indicators. Keywords Pipe . Appurtenance . LCI . Urban . Construction . Smart cities Highlights Different pipe materials and diameters were compared using LCA. A sensitivity analysis for trenches with concrete and sand beddings was conducted. Plastic pipes have the greatest impact due to their composition and durability. The installation stage accounts for 80 % of the impacts in most designs. The methodology helps to aggregate the sewer elements in any city configuration.